It’s broadly acknowledged that the identify of the Previous Testomony Hebrew God, YHWH, was not derived from the Hebrew language, although the phrase seems to share the widespread Afro-Asiatic etymological roots of the Hebrew phrases “hay” (“residing/ being”) and “hawwah” ( derived from the Hebrew root of the verb “to be”).
The widespread Afro-Asiatic root of the Hebrew phrase “hay” is ubiquitous within the sub-Saharan Niger-Congo group of African languages. Within the Yoruba language of West Africa, for example, the basis happens in phrases which means “life,” “mom,” and earth. Equally, the Afro-Asiatic root, “h-w-h,” of the Hebrew phrase “hawwah” (Eve) is present in phrases which means “life, ” “being” and girl within the language of the Yoruba.
The divine identify, YHWH, might need been derived from a kind which mixed the widespread Afro-Asiatic roots of the Hebrew phrases “hay” and “hawwah;” a kind generally discovered within the Niger-Congo languages of Africa as a generic time period for divine spirits. Thus, within the Fon language of the vodu (voodoo) tradition of Dahomey, West Africa, “Yehweh” is a synonym for vodu and it means “divine spirit.” Within the Ewe language of southern Togo, additionally of West Africa, ” Yehweh” means “spirit.”
Among the many West African Yoruba, Yewa is the chthonic goddess of loss of life and the underworld. She is the Virgin Mary of the Yoruba pantheon in heterosexual relationship with the sky god Sango within the circumstances of his loss of life and religious resurrection. The identify YHWH may, subsequently, be of Hamitic derivation, and might need discovered its approach into the languages of the Guinea Coast Africans, whose languages belong to a unique class, by cultural diffusion over centuries of shut contact with the traditional Hamitic languages of East Africa(the household of languages classed “Hamitic” are a subgroup of the “Afro-Asiatic” household of languages).
The Genesis account of the “generations” of the “male heavens” and “feminine earth” carries sturdy Hamitic conceptual undertones which Moses (the traditional Egyptian identify “Masi” is in widespread use as a private identify amongst African peoples) might need develop into acquainted with whereas rising up within the Higher Egyptian dominated tradition of the New Kingdom which had intimate cultural and historic hyperlinks with the African Kingdom of Kush which lay to its south. We’re advised, within the Previous Testomony scripture, for example, that Moses had a Kushitic spouse whom Mariam and Aaron(Moses’ siblings) disapproved of.
The Genesis act of unification of the gods into the singular personage YHWH displays an age-old apply of Historical Egyptian theologians. Historical Egypt had a always splintering myriad of artificial gods derived from the unification of a plurality of divinities: Amun-Re, Ptah-Sokar-Osiris, Hamarkis-Kheper-Re-Amun. Thus, within the act of unification of the myriad of gods in YHWH, we see the imprint of Historical Egyptian enculturation on Moses. Moses, nonetheless, achieved a grand unification of the Godhead quite than the partial unifications that Historical Egyptian theology remained restricted to.
The guide of Genesis identifies the identify YHWH with the vintage Kushitic civilization. We learn the next phrases within the Guide of Genesis: “And Kush was the daddy of Nimrod who turned the primary nice conqueror in historical past. He (Nimrod) was a mighty roving conqueror earlier than YHWH; for which cause the saying goes: Like Nimrod a mighty roving conqueror (gibbor sayid) earlier than YHWH.”
The importance of affiliation of the identify YHWH with the legendary hero of an vintage Kushitic civilization is usually missed within the context of the anti-Hamitism of historic Semitic tradition, whilst the importance of the identification of the Hamitic-Jebusite King Melchizedek with the Hebrew “Most Excessive God” (el elyon) is normally ignored.The proof is that Semitic tradition and civilization matured on the pre-existent matrix of the Hamitic tradition of the traditional Egyptians, even because the tradition of barbarian Germanics was nurtured on the pre-existent matrix of Latin civilization. And simply because the Reformations signaled the approaching of age of Germanic civilization, so additionally did the emergence of Semitic tradition witness a revolution involving an assertion of the Semitic identification by rising anti-Hamitic sentiments (thus the genocidal coverage of the Hebrews in Canaan can be defined away as divinely accredited).
The favored interpretation of the assertion: “Nimrod was a mighty hunter earlier than YHWH,” forces a unfavorable connotation on an in any other case impartial textual content. The saying: “Like Nimrod a mighty hunter earlier than YHWH,” will be interpreted as a praise. Equally, the saying could also be construed to suggest a God-devotee relationship between YHWH and Nimrod (one may say, on this sense, that whilst Nebuchadnezzar was a mighty hunter earlier than his god Marduk, so was Nimrod a mighty hunter earlier than (his god) YHWH).
The tradition of Israel had been uncovered to sturdy Hamitic affect within the 4 and a half centuries of sojourn in Egypt(the Hebrew scripture classifies the traditional Egyptians among the many “sons of Ham”). The importance of the truth that Moses had a Kushitic spouse turns into evident once we notice that the Jews acquired the custom of circumcision from Hamitic cultures which had practiced circumcision since prehistoric occasions. The African scholar Modupe Oduyoye has demonstrated in his work, Afro-Asiatic Interpretation of Genesis, a robust Hamitic undertone of thought within the garbled concepts expressed by the Hebrew writers within the Genesis creation account.
This text explores the tenuous associations of the Hebrew God YHWH with the West African Yoruba goddess Yewa(the Yoruba of West Africa insist that their ancestors had been immigrants from the Nile area by way of the Lake Chad area). That YHWH may initially have been a Kushitic androgynous cosmic deity could also be explored within the peculiar trans-sexual character of the the cross-dressed (transvestite), fire-breathing West African god of thunder, lightning and atmospheric disturbances, the redoubtable Sango (Candomble: Xango), Oba Koso (King of Kush). The Yoruba goddess Yewa (“Our Woman,” “Our Mom”) is the feminine earth deity (“IYAWO”) related in Yoruba mythology with Sango, King of Kush, at his loss of life. Sango, based on the Candomble system, triumphs over loss of life by seducing Yewa (YHWH), the virgin goddess of the underworld, and by this feat he reclaims his life. The goddess Yewa(YHWH) thus, turns into a mannequin of the spirit possession medium within the spirit possession cult of Sango. The spirit of Sango, in flip, turns into the legendary seed of the heavens fallen to the earth: the bini ha-loyim (sons of God) who observing the fantastic thing about the daughters of males (binot ha-‘adam) selected wives from amongst them and produced as sons, the ha-gibbor-iym (males of fame, heroes of previous).
Whereas the male ingredient within the character of Sango is strongly emphasised, the feminine (Yewa) ingredient to the persona of the double-faced deity was preserved, not solely within the feminine dominated priesthood of the god in pre-colonial Oyo, but additionally within the affiliation of the god’s Edun ara (double/twin thunder stones/celts) with the earth. The Alaafin (King) of Oyo, the direct descendant of Sango, was held in authorized custody by a coterie of titled women who, as a bunch, represented the best focus of energy and authority in your complete Kingdom. This clique presided completely over the mysteries of the cult of Sango related to the throne of Oyo. The Iya Mode was the chief medium of Sango. She was the residing oracle of the spirit of Sango, and despite the fact that she was a girl, she was universally addressed as “Father.” The King of Oyo humbled himself earlier than no mortal in addition to the Iya Mode and the mediums below her care, for when a medium is possessed by the spirit of Sango, she is taken into account the “selem” incarnation of the god himself. The Iya Kere was probably the most highly effective single particular person in your complete palace, and within the kingdom of Oyo. Nothing occurs within the palace with out her consent. She may maintain up political beliefs by withholding the royal insignia and different symbolic paraphernalia of state operate. She was the top of the Ilari (the King’s physique guards), and even the King’s “Chief of Workers,” the male Osi’Wefa was subordinated to her.
The double-head of the thunder god’s axe, in Yoruba custom, is an emblem of the primarily two-faced androgynous (Sango-Yewa) nature of cosmic deity in his-her artificial sky-earth identification (which explains why Sango is the patron deity of twins within the Yoruba pantheon of gods). In Yoruba custom, the double axe-head of Sango is normally mounted on a feminine figurine: a illustration of the Sango’s female alter ego or doppelganger, that’s, the chthonic goddess Yewa, in her mannequin function as spirit possession medium in Sango’s afterlife deification (Sango is meant, like Jesus, to have died by hanging). The Yoruba imagine, like Christians do, that the god Sango lived on, within the skyey realms, after he had apparently died on the stake, watching over mankind and punishing the depraved with lightning bolts from the heavens.